Advertisement

Atrial Flutter in Particular Patient Populations

  • Author Footnotes
    1 Drs. Compagnucci and Casella contributed equally to this work.
    Paolo Compagnucci
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author. Department of Biomedical Sciences and Public Health and Cardiology and Arrhythmology Clinic, Marche Polytechnic University and University Hospital “Ospedali Riuniti”, Via Conca 71, Ancona, 60126 Italy.
    Footnotes
    1 Drs. Compagnucci and Casella contributed equally to this work.
    Affiliations
    Cardiology and Arrhythmology Clinic, University Hospital “Ospedali Riuniti”, Via Conca 71, Ancona 60126, Italy

    Department of Biomedical Sciences and Public Health, Marche Polytechnic University, Ancona, Italy
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    1 Drs. Compagnucci and Casella contributed equally to this work.
    Michela Casella
    Footnotes
    1 Drs. Compagnucci and Casella contributed equally to this work.
    Affiliations
    Cardiology and Arrhythmology Clinic, University Hospital “Ospedali Riuniti”, Via Conca 71, Ancona 60126, Italy

    Department of Clinical, Special and Dental Sciences, Marche Polytechnic University, Ancona, Italy
    Search for articles by this author
  • Giuseppe Bagliani
    Affiliations
    Cardiology and Arrhythmology Clinic, University Hospital “Ospedali Riuniti”, Via Conca 71, Ancona 60126, Italy

    Department of Biomedical Sciences and Public Health, Marche Polytechnic University, Ancona, Italy
    Search for articles by this author
  • Alessandro Capestro
    Affiliations
    Department of Pediatric and Congenital Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery, University Hospital ”Ospedali Riuniti”, Via Conca 71, Ancona 60126, Italy
    Search for articles by this author
  • Giovanni Volpato
    Affiliations
    Cardiology and Arrhythmology Clinic, University Hospital “Ospedali Riuniti”, Via Conca 71, Ancona 60126, Italy

    Department of Biomedical Sciences and Public Health, Marche Polytechnic University, Ancona, Italy
    Search for articles by this author
  • Yari Valeri
    Affiliations
    Cardiology and Arrhythmology Clinic, University Hospital “Ospedali Riuniti”, Via Conca 71, Ancona 60126, Italy

    Department of Biomedical Sciences and Public Health, Marche Polytechnic University, Ancona, Italy
    Search for articles by this author
  • Laura Cipolletta
    Affiliations
    Cardiology and Arrhythmology Clinic, University Hospital “Ospedali Riuniti”, Via Conca 71, Ancona 60126, Italy
    Search for articles by this author
  • Quintino Parisi
    Affiliations
    Cardiology and Arrhythmology Clinic, University Hospital “Ospedali Riuniti”, Via Conca 71, Ancona 60126, Italy
    Search for articles by this author
  • Silvano Molini
    Affiliations
    Cardiology and Arrhythmology Clinic, University Hospital “Ospedali Riuniti”, Via Conca 71, Ancona 60126, Italy
    Search for articles by this author
  • Agostino Misiani
    Affiliations
    Cardiology and Arrhythmology Clinic, University Hospital “Ospedali Riuniti”, Via Conca 71, Ancona 60126, Italy
    Search for articles by this author
  • Antonio Dello Russo
    Affiliations
    Cardiology and Arrhythmology Clinic, University Hospital “Ospedali Riuniti”, Via Conca 71, Ancona 60126, Italy

    Department of Clinical, Special and Dental Sciences, Marche Polytechnic University, Ancona, Italy
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    1 Drs. Compagnucci and Casella contributed equally to this work.
Published:August 24, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ccep.2022.05.002

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Cardiac Electrophysiology Clinics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Einthoven W.
        The telecardiogramme.
        Arch Int Physiol. 1906; 4: 132-141
        • Lee K.W.
        • Yang Y.
        • Scheinman M.M.
        Atrial flutter: a review of its history, mechanisms, clinical features, and current therapy.
        Curr Probl Cardiol. 2005; 30: 121-167
        • Capucci A.
        • Compagnucci P.
        Progressi nel trattamento della fibrillazione atriale [Advances in the treatment of atrial fibrillation].
        G Ital Cardiol (Rome). 2021; 22: 689-696
        • De Martino G.
        • Compagnucci P.
        • Mancusi C.
        • et al.
        Stepwise endo-/epicardial catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation: the Mediterranea approach.
        J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2021; 32: 2107-2115
        • Granada J.
        • Uribe W.
        • Chyou P.H.
        • et al.
        Incidence and predictors of atrial flutter in the general population.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000; 36: 2242-2246
        • Gula L.J.
        • Redfearn D.P.
        • Jenkyn K.B.
        • et al.
        Elevated incidence of atrial fibrillation and stroke in patients with atrial flutter-A population-based study.
        Can J Cardiol. 2018; 34: 774-783
        • Wijffels M.C.
        • Kirchhof C.J.
        • Dorland R.
        • et al.
        Atrial fibrillation begets atrial fibrillation. A study in awake chronically instrumented goats.
        Circulation. 1995; 92: 1954-1968
        • Goette A.
        • Kalman J.M.
        • Aguinaga L.
        • et al.
        EHRA/HRS/APHRS/SOLAECE expert consensus on atrial cardiomyopathies: definition, characterization, and clinical implication.
        Europace. 2016; 18: 1455-1490
        • Hirsh B.J.
        • Copeland-Halperin R.S.
        • Halperin J.L.
        Fibrotic atrial cardiomyopathy, atrial fibrillation, and thromboembolism: mechanistic links and clinical inferences.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015; 65: 2239-2251
        • Guichard J.B.
        • Nattel S.
        Atrial cardiomyopathy: a useful notion in cardiac disease management or a passing fad?.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017; 70: 756-765
        • Olshansky B.
        • Okumura K.
        • Hess P.G.
        • et al.
        Demonstration of an area of slow conduction in human atrial flutter.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 1990; 16: 1639-1648
        • Waki K.
        • Saito T.
        • Becker A.E.
        Right atrial flutter isthmus revisited: normal anatomy favors nonuniform anisotropic conduction.
        J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2000; 11: 90-94
        • Guichard J.B.
        • Naud P.
        • Xiong F.
        • et al.
        Comparison of atrial remodeling caused by sustained atrial flutter versus atrial fibrillation.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2020; 76: 374-388
        • Kirchhof P.
        • Camm A.J.
        • Goette A.
        • et al.
        Early rhythm-control therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation.
        N Engl J Med. 2020; 383: 1305-1316
        • Capucci A.
        • Compagnucci P.
        Is delayed cardioversion the better approach in recent-onset atrial fibrillation? No.
        Intern Emerg Med. 2020; 15: 5-7
        • Diamant M.J.
        • Andrade J.G.
        • Virani S.A.
        • et al.
        Heart failure and atrial flutter: a systematic review of current knowledge and practices.
        ESC Heart Fail. 2021; 8: 4484-4496
        • Pizzale S.
        • Lemery R.
        • Green M.S.
        • et al.
        Frequency and predictors of tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy in patients with persistent atrial flutter.
        Can J Cardiol. 2009; 25: 469-472
        • Oka S.
        • Kai T.
        • Hoshino K.
        • et al.
        Rate versus rhythm control in tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy patients with persistent atrial flutter.
        Int Heart J. 2021; 62: 119-126
        • Crijns H.J.
        • Van Gelder I.C.
        • Tieleman R.G.
        • et al.
        Long-term outcome of electrical cardioversion in patients with chronic atrial flutter.
        Heart. 1997; 77: 56-61
        • Casella M.
        • Bergonti M.
        • Dello Russo A.
        • et al.
        Endomyocardial biopsy: the forgotten piece in the arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy puzzle.
        J Am Heart Assoc. 2021; 10: e021370
        • Gasperetti A.
        • Cappelletto C.
        • Carrick R.
        • et al.
        Association of premature ventricular contraction burden on serial holter monitoring with arrhythmic risk in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy.
        JAMA Cardiol. 2022; 7: 378-385
        • Camm C.F.
        • James C.A.
        • Tichnell C.
        • et al.
        Prevalence of atrial arrhythmias in arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy.
        Heart Rhythm. 2013; 10: 1661-1668
        • Tonet J.L.
        • Castro-Miranda R.
        • Iwa T.
        • et al.
        Frequency of supraventricular tachyarrhythmias in arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia.
        Am J Cardiol. 1991; 67: 1153
        • Chu A.F.
        • Zado E.
        • Marchlinski F.E.
        Atrial arrhythmias in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia and ventricular tachycardia.
        Am J Cardiol. 2010; 106: 720-722
        • Saguner A.M.
        • Ganahl S.
        • Kraus A.
        • et al.
        Clinical role of atrial arrhythmias in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia.
        Circ J. 2014; 78: 2854-2861
        • Gasperetti A.
        • James C.A.
        • Chen L.
        • et al.
        Efficacy of catheter ablation for atrial arrhythmias in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy-A multicenter study.
        J Clin Med. 2021; 10: 4962
        • Gasperetti A.
        • Schiavone M.
        • Ziacchi M.
        • et al.
        Long-term complications in patients implanted with subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillators: real-world data from the extended ELISIR experience.
        Heart Rhythm. 2021; 18: 2050-2058
        • Adabag A.S.
        • Casey S.A.
        • Kuskowski M.A.
        • et al.
        Spectrum and prognostic significance of arrhythmias on ambulatory Holter electrocardiogram in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005; 45: 697-704
        • Schiavone W.A.
        • Maloney J.D.
        • Lever H.M.
        • et al.
        Electrophysiologic studies of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy presenting with syncope of undetermined etiology.
        Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 1986; 9: 476-481
        • Fananapazir L.
        • Tracy C.M.
        • Leon M.B.
        • et al.
        Electrophysiologic abnormalities in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. A consecutive analysis in 155 patients.
        Circulation. 1989; 80: 1259-1268
        • Zhang H.D.
        • Ding L.
        • Weng S.X.
        • et al.
        Characteristics and long-term ablation outcomes of supraventricular arrhythmias in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: a 10-year, single-center experience.
        Front Cardiovasc Med. 2021; 8: 766571
        • Kumar S.
        • Baldinger S.H.
        • Gandjbakhch E.
        • et al.
        Long-term arrhythmic and nonarrhythmic outcomes of lamin A/C mutation carriers.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2016; 68: 2299-2307
        • Kumar S.
        • Stevenson W.G.
        • John R.M.
        Arrhythmias in dilated cardiomyopathy.
        Card Electrophysiol Clin. 2015; 7: 221-233
        • Cioffi G.M.
        • Gasperetti A.
        • Tersalvi G.
        • et al.
        Etiology and device therapy in complete atrioventricular block in pediatric and young adult population: contemporary review and new perspectives.
        J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2021; 32: 3082-3094
        • Meune C.
        • Van Berlo J.H.
        • Anselme F.
        • et al.
        Primary prevention of sudden death in patients with lamin A/C gene mutations.
        N Engl J Med. 2006; 354: 209-210
        • Fishbein M.C.
        • Siegel R.J.
        • Thompson C.E.
        • et al.
        Sudden death of a carrier of X-linked Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy.
        Ann Intern Med. 1993; 119: 900-905
        • Kumar S.
        • Androulakis A.F.
        • Sellal J.M.
        • et al.
        Multicenter experience with catheter ablation for ventricular tachycardia in lamin A/C cardiomyopathy.
        Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2016; 9: e004357
        • Barbhaiya C.R.
        • Kumar S.
        • Baldinger S.H.
        • et al.
        Electrophysiologic assessment of conduction abnormalities and atrial arrhythmias associated with amyloid cardiomyopathy.
        Heart Rhythm. 2016; 13: 383-390
        • Maurer M.S.
        • Hanna M.
        • Grogan M.
        • et al.
        Genotype and phenotype of transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis: THAOS (transthyretin amyloid outcome survey).
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2016; 68: 161-172
        • Sayed R.H.
        • Rogers D.
        • Khan F.
        • et al.
        A study of implanted cardiac rhythm recorders in advanced cardiac AL amyloidosis.
        Eur Heart J. 2015; 36: 1098-1105
        • El-Am E.A.
        • Dispenzieri A.
        • Melduni R.M.
        • et al.
        Direct current cardioversion of atrial arrhythmias in adults with cardiac amyloidosis.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019; 73: 589-597
        • Dale Z.
        • Chandrashekar P.
        • Al-Rashdan L.
        • et al.
        Management strategies for atrial fibrillation and flutter in patients with transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis.
        Am J Cardiol. 2021; 157: 107-114
        • Groh W.J.
        Arrhythmias in the muscular dystrophies.
        Heart Rhythm. 2012; 9: 1890-1895
        • Feingold B.
        • Mahle W.T.
        • Auerbach S.
        • et al.
        Management of cardiac involvement associated with neuromuscular diseases: a scientific statement from the american heart association.
        Circulation. 2017; 136: e200-e231
        • Pelargonio G.
        • Dello Russo A.
        • Sanna T.
        • et al.
        Myotonic dystrophy and the heart.
        Heart. 2002; 88: 665-670
        • Finsterer J.
        • Stöllberger C.
        Atrial fibrillation/flutter in myopathies.
        Int J Cardiol. 2008; 128: 304-310
        • Bhakta D.
        • Shen C.
        • Kron J.
        • et al.
        Pacemaker and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator use in a US myotonic dystrophy type 1 population.
        J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2011; 22: 1369-1375
        • Wahbi K.
        • Sebag F.A.
        • Lellouche N.
        • et al.
        Atrial flutter in myotonic dystrophy type 1: patient characteristics and clinical outcome.
        Neuromuscul Disord. 2016; 26: 227-233
        • Dello Russo A.
        • Pelargonio G.
        • Parisi Q.
        • et al.
        Widespread electroanatomic alterations of right cardiac chambers in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1.
        J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2006; 17: 34-40
        • Groh W.J.
        • Groh M.R.
        • Saha C.
        • et al.
        Electrocardiographic abnormalities and sudden death in myotonic dystrophy type 1.
        N Engl J Med. 2008; 358: 2688-2697
        • Chambers D.C.
        • Yusen R.D.
        • Cherikh W.S.
        • et al.
        The registry of the international society for heart and lung transplantation: thirty-fourth adult lung and heart-lung transplantation report-2017; focus theme: allograft ischemic time.
        J Heart Lung Transplant. 2017; 36: 1047-1059
        • Thajudeen A.
        • Stecker E.C.
        • Shehata M.
        • et al.
        Arrhythmias after heart transplantation: mechanisms and management.
        J Am Heart Assoc. 2012; 1: e001461
        • Vaseghi M.
        • Boyle N.G.
        • Kedia R.
        • et al.
        Supraventricular tachycardia after orthotopic cardiac transplantation.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008; 51: 2241-2249
        • Cui G.
        • Tung T.
        • Kobashigawa J.
        • et al.
        Increased incidence of atrial flutter associated with the rejection of heart transplantation.
        Am J Cardiol. 2001; 88: 280-284
        • Mouhoub Y.
        • Laredo M.
        • Varnous S.
        • et al.
        Catheter ablation of organized atrial arrhythmias in orthotopic heart transplantation.
        J Heart Lung Transpl. 2017; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healun.2017.07.022
        • Herweg B.
        • Nellaiyappan M.
        • Welter-Frost A.M.
        • et al.
        Immuno-electrophysiological mechanisms of functional electrical connections between recipient and donor heart in patients with orthotopic heart transplantation presenting with atrial arrhythmias.
        Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2021; 14: e008751
        • Simons S.O.
        • Elliott A.
        • Sastry M.
        • et al.
        Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and atrial fibrillation: an interdisciplinary perspective.
        Eur Heart J. 2021; 42: 532-540
        • Hayashi T.
        • Fukamizu S.
        • Hojo R.
        • et al.
        Prevalence and electrophysiological characteristics of typical atrial flutter in patients with atrial fibrillation and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
        Europace. 2013; 15: 1777-1783
        • Olsson K.M.
        • Nickel N.P.
        • Tongers J.
        • et al.
        Atrial flutter and fibrillation in patients with pulmonary hypertension.
        Int J Cardiol. 2013; 167: 2300-2305
        • Medi C.
        • Kalman J.M.
        • Ling L.H.
        • et al.
        Atrial electrical and structural remodeling associated with longstanding pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular hypertrophy in humans.
        J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2012; 23: 614-620
        • Coromilas E.J.
        • Kochav S.
        • Goldenthal I.
        • et al.
        Worldwide survey of COVID-19-associated arrhythmias.
        Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2021; 14: e009458
        • Peltzer B.
        • Manocha K.K.
        • Ying X.
        • et al.
        Outcomes and mortality associated with atrial arrhythmias among patients hospitalized with COVID-19.
        J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2020; 31: 3077-3085
        • Compagnucci P.
        • Volpato G.
        • Pascucci R.
        • et al.
        Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on a tertiary-level electrophysiology laboratory in Italy.
        Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2020; 13: e008774
        • Lakkireddy D.R.
        • Chung M.K.
        • Deering T.F.
        • et al.
        Guidance for rebooting electrophysiology through the COVID-19 pandemic from the heart rhythm society and the American heart association electrocardiography and arrhythmias committee of the council on clinical cardiology: endorsed by the American college of cardiology.
        Heart Rhythm. 2020; 17: e242-e254
        • Magnocavallo M.
        • Vetta G.
        • Della Rocca D.
        • et al.
        Prevalence, management, and outcome of atrial fibrillation and other supraventricular arrhythmias in COVID-19 patients.
        Card Electrophysiol Clin. 2022; 14: 1-9
        • Siniorakis E.
        • Arvanitakis S.
        • Katsianis A.
        • et al.
        Atrial fibrillation and flutter in patients hospitalized for COVID-19: the challenging role of digoxin.
        J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2021; 32: 878-879
        • Volpato G.
        • Falanga U.
        • Cipolletta L.
        • et al.
        Sports activity and arrhythmic risk in cardiomyopathies and channelopathies: a critical review of European guidelines on sports cardiology in patients with cardiovascular diseases.
        Medicina (Kaunas). 2021; 57: 308
        • Compagnucci P.
        • Volpato G.
        • Falanga U.
        • et al.
        Myocardial inflammation, sports practice, and sudden cardiac death: 2021 update.
        Medicina (Kaunas). 2021; 57: 277
        • Dello Russo A.
        • Compagnucci P.
        • Casella M.
        • et al.
        Ventricular arrhythmias in athletes: role of a comprehensive diagnostic workup.
        Heart Rhythm. 2022; 19: 90-99
        • Fogante M.
        • Agliata G.
        • Basile M.C.
        • et al.
        Cardiac imaging in athlete's heart: the role of the radiologist.
        Medicina (Kaunas). 2021; 57: 455
        • Heidbuchel H.
        The athlete's heart is a proarrhythmic heart, and what that means for clinical decision making.
        Europace. 2018; 20: 1401-1411
        • Hoogsteen J.
        • Schep G.
        • Van Hemel N.M.
        • et al.
        Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in male endurance athletes. A 9-year follow up.
        Europace. 2004; 6: 222-228
        • Baldesberger S.
        • Bauersfeld U.
        • Candinas R.
        • et al.
        Sinus node disease and arrhythmias in the long-term follow-up of former professional cyclists.
        Eur Heart J. 2008; 29: 71-78
        • D'Ascenzi F.
        • Anselmi F.
        • Focardi M.
        • et al.
        Atrial enlargement in the athlete's heart: assessment of atrial function may help distinguish adaptive from pathologic remodeling.
        J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2018; 31: 148-157
        • Stadiotti I.
        • Lippi M.
        • Maione A.S.
        • et al.
        Cardiac biomarkers and autoantibodies in endurance athletes: potential similarities with arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy pathogenic mechanisms.
        Int J Mol Sci. 2021; 22: 6500
        • Heidbüchel H.
        • Anné W.
        • Willems R.
        • et al.
        Endurance sports is a risk factor for atrial fibrillation after ablation for atrial flutter.
        Int J Cardiol. 2006; 107: 67-72
        • Heidbuchel H.
        • Adami P.E.
        • Antz M.
        • et al.
        Recommendations for participation in leisure-time physical activity and competitive sports in patients with arrhythmias and potentially arrhythmogenic conditions: Part 1: supraventricular arrhythmias. A position statement of the Section of Sports Cardiology and Exercise from the European Association of Preventive Cardiology (EAPC) and the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA), both associations of the European Society of Cardiology.
        Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2021; 28(14): 1539-1551https://doi.org/10.1177/2047487320925635
        • Zipes D.P.
        • Link M.S.
        • Ackerman M.J.
        • et al.
        Eligibility and disqualification recommendations for competitive athletes with cardiovascular abnormalities: task force 9: arrhythmias and conduction defects: a scientific statement from the American heart association and American college of cardiology.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015; 66: 2412-2423
        • Nelson J.G.
        • Zhu D.W.
        Atrial flutter with 1:1 conduction in undiagnosed Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome.
        J Emerg Med. 2014; 46: e135-e140
        • Bagliani G.
        • De Ponti R.
        • Notaristefano F.
        • et al.
        Ventricular preexcitation: an anomalous wave interfering with the ordered ventricular activation.
        Card Electrophysiol Clin. 2020; 12: 447-464
        • Delise P.
        • Sciarra L.
        Sudden cardiac death in patients with ventricular preexcitation.
        Card Electrophysiol Clin. 2020; 12: 519-525
        • Centurión O.A.
        • Shimizu A.
        • Isomoto S.
        • et al.
        Mechanisms for the genesis of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in the Wolff Parkinson-White syndrome: intrinsic atrial muscle vulnerability vs. electrophysiological properties of the accessory pathway.
        Europace. 2008; 10: 294-302
        • Compagnucci P.
        • Volpato G.
        • Falanga U.
        • et al.
        Recent advances in three-dimensional electroanatomical mapping guidance for the ablation of complex atrial and ventricular arrhythmias.
        J Interv Card Electrophysiol. 2021; 61: 37-43
        • Bergonti M.
        • Dello Russo A.
        • Sicuso R.
        • et al.
        Long-term outcomes of near-zero radiation ablation of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia: a comparison with fluoroscopy-guided approach.
        JACC Clin Electrophysiol. 2021; 7: 1108-1117
        • Compagnucci P.
        • Dello Russo A.
        • Bergonti M.
        • et al.
        Ablation index predicts successful ablation of focal atrial tachycardia: results of a multicenter study.
        J Clin Med. 2022; 11: 1802